Selected Posts on Anti-Relativity - 物理の勉強掲示板

Selected Posts on Anti-Relativity

0nakayama 2023/02/18 09:14 4521view

Michelson-Morley Experiment

It (done in air) is nonsense. In air, light is propagated at c/n. So, the result of M-M experiment (done in air) is only natural.

In a book "Theory of Relativity" by Pauli, W 1958, it's written as follows (quoted from English version ; in 1-6). "Rather should one say that for an observer moving with medium, light is propagated as usual with velocity c/n in all directions".

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9pt

149中山 2024/08/03 09:30

Inertial Force is not Fictitious (rewritten)

An body m is suspended by a string from the center of the ceiling of a passenger car. If the passenger car is accelerated to the right, string and body will tilt downward to the left. But, what if the passenger car is jerk-moving? The inclination of string and body will continue to increase, the tension in the string will increase, and eventually the string will break.

These situations and explanations of the situation must be the same for one inside and outside the passenger car. Inertial force is not a fictitious force for one inside and outside the car. Inertial force in this case is the action, and the reaction is the tension in the string.

Inertial Force is not Fictitious (rewritten)

An body m is suspended by a string from the center of the ceiling of a passenger car. If the passenger car is accelerated to the right, string and body will tilt downward to the left. But, what if the passenger car is jerk-moving? The inclination of string and body will continue to increase, the tension in the string will increase, and eventually the string will break.

These situations and explanations of the situation must be the same for one inside and outside the passenger car. Inertial force is not a fictitious force for one inside and outside the car. Inertial force in this case is the action, and the reaction is the tension in the string.

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148中山 2024/07/19 13:36

Inertial Force is not Fictitious (rewritten)

By a string, a body of mass m is hanging from the ceiling in the center of the passenger car. Body and the string are perpendicular. Next, the passenger car begins to accelerate to the right. Body and the string tilt to the left. This acceleration is usually constant. However, if an external force F continues to grow as time passes, the inclination of body and the string also continues to grow. This varying is the same for one inside and outside the passenger car. And, the tension of the string, which is a reaction to the inertial force will be the same to the two also (and if the string breaks, it will be the same to the two also).

Inertial Force is not Fictitious (rewritten)

By a string, a body of mass m is hanging from the ceiling in the center of the passenger car. Body and the string are perpendicular. Next, the passenger car begins to accelerate to the right. Body and the string tilt to the left. This acceleration is usually constant. However, if an external force F continues to grow as time passes, the inclination of body and the string also continues to grow. This varying is the same for one inside and outside the passenger car. And, the tension of the string, which is a reaction to the inertial force will be the same to the two also (and if the string breaks, it will be the same to the two also).

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146中山 2024/07/09 09:30

Speed **of Starlight (Supplement)

Allow me to add to 145. When the glass cube moves left and right....

Inside the glass, c/n is constant, and the other two are variable

Just before entering the glass, λ is constant, and the other two are variable

Just after leaving the glass, c is constant, and the other two are variable

Speed **of Starlight (Supplement)

Allow me to add to 145. When the glass cube moves left and right....

Inside the glass, c/n is constant, and the other two are variable

Just before entering the glass, λ is constant, and the other two are variable

Just after leaving the glass, c is constant, and the other two are variable

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145中山 2024/06/15 10:10

Speed **of Starlight

A glass cube is floating horizontally in outer space. Two rays of starlight coming from the left and right are passing through the glass horizontally. Below is the difference between the two rays of light as seen from viewpoint of the glass (difference in formula v = f λ).

Difference inside the glass c/n = c/n f ≠ f λ ≠ λ

Difference just before entering the glass c ≠ c f ≠ f λ = λ

Difference just after leaving the glass c = c f ≠ f λ ≠ λ

Speed **of Starlight

A glass cube is floating horizontally in outer space. Two rays of starlight coming from the left and right are passing through the glass horizontally. Below is the difference between the two rays of light as seen from viewpoint of the glass (difference in formula v = f λ).

Difference inside the glass c/n = c/n f ≠ f λ ≠ λ

Difference just before entering the glass c ≠ c f ≠ f λ = λ

Difference just after leaving the glass c = c f ≠ f λ ≠ λ

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144中山 2024/06/09 15:20

Allow me to revise "Note" of my post 143. Sorry.

Note) For light before it reaches the glass, formula v = f λ also holds (from perspective of the glass). And value f is the same as f for the glass.

Allow me to revise "Note" of my post 143. Sorry.

Note) For light before it reaches the glass, formula v = f λ also holds (from perspective of the glass). And value f is the same as f for the glass.

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143中山 2024/06/07 19:11

Value of Speed of Light (of starlight in outer space)

Light of two stars coming from the left and right is passing through a glass cube. This cube is floating horizontally in outer space. Inside the glass, formula c/n = f λ holds. Four values **are known.

Two lights inside the glass are spectralized and the spectra (distance between chosen atom or molecule A and B) is compared. The two will be slightly different.

Note) For light in outer space, formula v = f λ holds. And value f is the same as f for the glass (from the perspective of the glass).

Value of Speed of Light (of starlight in outer space)

Light of two stars coming from the left and right is passing through a glass cube. This cube is floating horizontally in outer space. Inside the glass, formula c/n = f λ holds. Four values **are known.

Two lights inside the glass are spectralized and the spectra (distance between chosen atom or molecule A and B) is compared. The two will be slightly different.

Note) For light in outer space, formula v = f λ holds. And value f is the same as f for the glass (from the perspective of the glass).

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142中山 2024/06/05 09:31

Speed of Light is not Constant Always (again)

Starlight is coming to a glass cube floating in outer space from the left and is leaving to the right. At the left and right ends of the glass, frequency of starlight is the same. Imagine that the glass is moving at various uniform speeds to the left and right. v of light on the left and right will not be the same, and so will λ (the formula v = fλ is viewed from perspective of the glass).

Speed of Light is not Constant Always (again)

Starlight is coming to a glass cube floating in outer space from the left and is leaving to the right. At the left and right ends of the glass, frequency of starlight is the same. Imagine that the glass is moving at various uniform speeds to the left and right. v of light on the left and right will not be the same, and so will λ (the formula v = fλ is viewed from perspective of the glass).

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141中山 2024/06/01 07:48

Extinction

Light entering glass in outer space has a speed of c/n relative to the glass. This varying in speed within the medium is called extinction, and is completed in a very small optical path length that differs depending on mediums. For glass, it is 0.0001 mm.

Imagine that the glass moves in various uniform linear motions in outer space. The speed of light entering the glass and leaving the glass are not the same (from the perspective of the glass).

Extinction

Light entering glass in outer space has a speed of c/n relative to the glass. This varying in speed within the medium is called extinction, and is completed in a very small optical path length that differs depending on mediums. For glass, it is 0.0001 mm.

Imagine that the glass moves in various uniform linear motions in outer space. The speed of light entering the glass and leaving the glass are not the same (from the perspective of the glass).

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140中山 2024/05/27 10:45

Wavelength Measurment (continued)

A starlight is passing through horizontal tube in outer space from left to right. A flat glass plate is fitted in center of the tube. Assume that this tube is moving at different uniform speed in left and right directions. For left and right light each, the formula v = f λ holds. Frome the perspective of the tube, f on the left and right sides are the same. But v is different and λ will also be different.

There is an argument that v are the same. If so, λ must also be the same. However, λ on the left does not follow (does not be affected by) the motion of the tube. But λ on the right follows (is affected by). This difference must not be forgotten.

Wavelength Measurment (continued)

A starlight is passing through horizontal tube in outer space from left to right. A flat glass plate is fitted in center of the tube. Assume that this tube is moving at different uniform speed in left and right directions. For left and right light each, the formula v = f λ holds. Frome the perspective of the tube, f on the left and right sides are the same. But v is different and λ will also be different.

There is an argument that v are the same. If so, λ must also be the same. However, λ on the left does not follow (does not be affected by) the motion of the tube. But λ on the right follows (is affected by). This difference must not be forgotten.

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139中山 2024/05/24 15:42

Wavelength Measurement (Aw)

Is wavelength of light traveling in outer space being measured as it is (on light before arriving) ? Isn't what is being measured wavelength of light (extincted light) that has passed through a medium such as glass ? In internet (a bit), any site mentioned can not be found.

Suppose an observer moving in various motions in outer space is measuring wavelength of starlights. In the formula, c = f λ, f varies. Accordingly, c will vary. However, we seem to believe, it is λ that varies.

We must distinguish the light before and after measurement device (before and after extinction).

Wavelength Measurement (Aw)

Is wavelength of light traveling in outer space being measured as it is (on light before arriving) ? Isn't what is being measured wavelength of light (extincted light) that has passed through a medium such as glass ? In internet (a bit), any site mentioned can not be found.

Suppose an observer moving in various motions in outer space is measuring wavelength of starlights. In the formula, c = f λ, f varies. Accordingly, c will vary. However, we seem to believe, it is λ that varies.

We must distinguish the light before and after measurement device (before and after extinction).

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137中山 2024/05/22 11:11

Hollow Tube and Speed of Light (again)

In outer space, starlight coming from the left is passing through a stationary horizontal tube of length L. Frequency at the left and right ends of the tube is the same. This sameness is true even if the tube is moving in the left and right directions at different uniform speed. In other words, number of waves that exist inside the tube (wave number × L) is invariable. There is no varying in wavelength of light. In the formula, c = f λ, it is f and c that vary. It is the first picture.

In the second picture, there are two tubes the same as above. The two are moving at a uniform speed. One is to the left and the other is to the right. As mentioned above, wavelength of light is the same. In the formula, c = f λ, f and c (of the two) are not the same.

Hollow Tube and Speed of Light (again)

In outer space, starlight coming from the left is passing through a stationary horizontal tube of length L. Frequency at the left and right ends of the tube is the same. This sameness is true even if the tube is moving in the left and right directions at different uniform speed. In other words, number of waves that exist inside the tube (wave number × L) is invariable. There is no varying in wavelength of light. In the formula, c = f λ, it is f and c that vary. It is the first picture.

In the second picture, there are two tubes the same as above. The two are moving at a uniform speed. One is to the left and the other is to the right. As mentioned above, wavelength of light is the same. In the formula, c = f λ, f and c (of the two) are not the same.

4pt

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136中山 2024/05/20 12:47

To yesterday's post

Is it possible to measure the wavelength of light before it enters the measuring device? If possible, the measuring device could be moved to equalize the speeds of light (from the stars coming from the opposite points. the two stars with the greatest difference in speed of light). This means that the measuring instrument is stationary in the aether.

To yesterday's post

Is it possible to measure the wavelength of light before it enters the measuring device? If possible, the measuring device could be moved to equalize the speeds of light (from the stars coming from the opposite points. the two stars with the greatest difference in speed of light). This means that the measuring instrument is stationary in the aether.

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135名前を書き忘れた受験生 2024/05/19 16:09

What means "two points (on the celestial sphere) where the difference is greatest"?

What means "two points (on the celestial sphere) where the difference is greatest"?

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134中山 2024/05/19 15:43

Aether Drift (again)

Speed of light is the distance that light travels in one second, 299,792,458 m/s (defined value). Above value was obtained by measuring frequency and wavelength of laser light performed by Evenson et al in 1973 (error was ± 1.2 m/s).

Suppose that frequency and wavelength of light coming from two fixed stars located at symmetrical points (at opposite ponts) on the celestial sphere. Measuring must be done simultaneously. Perhaps many of the measured speeds of light are different. If so, it will be possible to identify two points (on the celestial sphere) where the difference is greatest.

Note) Differences due to known mtion of Earth such as revolution and rotation must be excluded.

Note) Wavelength must be measured before the light enters mediums such as glass.

Aether Drift (again)

Speed of light is the distance that light travels in one second, 299,792,458 m/s (defined value). Above value was obtained by measuring frequency and wavelength of laser light performed by Evenson et al in 1973 (error was ± 1.2 m/s).

Suppose that frequency and wavelength of light coming from two fixed stars located at symmetrical points (at opposite ponts) on the celestial sphere. Measuring must be done simultaneously. Perhaps many of the measured speeds of light are different. If so, it will be possible to identify two points (on the celestial sphere) where the difference is greatest.

Note) Differences due to known mtion of Earth such as revolution and rotation must be excluded.

Note) Wavelength must be measured before the light enters mediums such as glass.

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133中山 2024/05/18 15:18

One-way Speed of Light/Isotropy of Aether (again)

English version of Wikipedia has a title "One-way speed of light". Word isotropic is found in 27 places.

However, if the light from multiple celestial bodies on the celestial sphere is recorded and analyzed in outer space, one-way speed of light will become disclosed. Probably easily. By established means of measuring aberration.

The position of bright lines and dark lines in spectrum of the celestial body's light will show the speed of celestial body's light and speed of light relative to Earth (and Aether drift). The isotropy and uniformity of aether will also be disclosed.

One-way Speed of Light/Isotropy of Aether (again)

English version of Wikipedia has a title "One-way speed of light". Word isotropic is found in 27 places.

However, if the light from multiple celestial bodies on the celestial sphere is recorded and analyzed in outer space, one-way speed of light will become disclosed. Probably easily. By established means of measuring aberration.

The position of bright lines and dark lines in spectrum of the celestial body's light will show the speed of celestial body's light and speed of light relative to Earth (and Aether drift). The isotropy and uniformity of aether will also be disclosed.

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132中山 2024/05/12 11:36

Lunar Laser Ranging (again)

Distance between Moon and Earth is measured with millimeter precision. Measurement is based on the formula "distance = speed of light x round trip time / a2". What is noteworthy here is that the direction of laser beam with respect to celestial sphere does not affect the measurement results.

Assume that the space where Moon and Earth exist is also filled with aether. Measurement results will differ depending on the direction of laser beam with respect to celestial sphere (according to the explanation of MM experiment).

Aeher does not affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves at the distance between Moon and Earth. That is, aether does not affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves for a few seconds after emitted. Ritz' emission theory is revived, although in a limited extent. For now, let's take this as an assumption. There is no need to be worried about the framework of time or space.

Lunar Laser Ranging (again)

Distance between Moon and Earth is measured with millimeter precision. Measurement is based on the formula "distance = speed of light x round trip time / a2". What is noteworthy here is that the direction of laser beam with respect to celestial sphere does not affect the measurement results.

Assume that the space where Moon and Earth exist is also filled with aether. Measurement results will differ depending on the direction of laser beam with respect to celestial sphere (according to the explanation of MM experiment).

Aeher does not affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves at the distance between Moon and Earth. That is, aether does not affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves for a few seconds after emitted. Ritz' emission theory is revived, although in a limited extent. For now, let's take this as an assumption. There is no need to be worried about the framework of time or space.

7pt

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131中山 2024/05/08 11:14

Mart*nez, Alberto A. (2004), "Ritz, Einstein, and the Emission Hypothesis", Physics in Perspective, 6 (1):

英語のサイトに上記の雑誌記事が。季刊の雑誌のよう。

Mart*nez, Alberto A. (2004), "Ritz, Einstein, and the Emission Hypothesis", Physics in Perspective, 6 (1):

英語のサイトに上記の雑誌記事が。季刊の雑誌のよう。

3pt

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130中山 2024/05/04 09:25

Law of Universal Gravitation (rewritten)

Formula for the law of universal gravitation is F=GMm/r^2. Value r is the distance between centers of gravity of the two bodies (let's call them spheres L and R). If r is 50, the squared is 2500. It is the first diagram.

Now, this is the second diagram. On a horizontal straight line, spheres L, R1, and R2 are lined up. If distance between L and R1 is 49, and distance between L and R2 is 51, the squared are 2401 and 2601. If these two are added and divided by 2, the value 2501 is gotten, which is slightly larger than 2500. In other words, the formula of universal gravitation doesn't care about the size of the two sources of gravity, but in reality, there will be a difference, even if it's a little ? Is Newton's spherical shell theorem not perfect ? Is this the main cause of apsidal precession ?

Note) 2500 and 2501 are coefficients in numerator of the formula.

Note) Masses of R1 and R2 are each 1/2 of the mass of R.

Note) Assume that R1 and R2 are hemispheres of R (distance of centers of gravity is 2).

Law of Universal Gravitation (rewritten)

Formula for the law of universal gravitation is F=GMm/r^2. Value r is the distance between centers of gravity of the two bodies (let's call them spheres L and R). If r is 50, the squared is 2500. It is the first diagram.

Now, this is the second diagram. On a horizontal straight line, spheres L, R1, and R2 are lined up. If distance between L and R1 is 49, and distance between L and R2 is 51, the squared are 2401 and 2601. If these two are added and divided by 2, the value 2501 is gotten, which is slightly larger than 2500. In other words, the formula of universal gravitation doesn't care about the size of the two sources of gravity, but in reality, there will be a difference, even if it's a little ? Is Newton's spherical shell theorem not perfect ? Is this the main cause of apsidal precession ?

Note) 2500 and 2501 are coefficients in numerator of the formula.

Note) Masses of R1 and R2 are each 1/2 of the mass of R.

Note) Assume that R1 and R2 are hemispheres of R (distance of centers of gravity is 2).

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129中山 2024/04/27 13:56

Accelerated Motion and Non-Accelerated Motion (again) (クリ)

All accelerated motion is accompanied by inertial force (it is reaction. See Newton's third law of motion).

All non-accelerated motion is not accompanied by inertial force. It is the same for absolute rest (relative to aether frame).

Gravity is unrelated to this problem.

Accelerated Motion and Non-Accelerated Motion (again) (クリ)

All accelerated motion is accompanied by inertial force (it is reaction. See Newton's third law of motion).

All non-accelerated motion is not accompanied by inertial force. It is the same for absolute rest (relative to aether frame).

Gravity is unrelated to this problem.

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128中山 2024/04/20 10:19

Equivalence Principle (again)

Allow me to repeat the previous question,regarding two situations ◎ below. Two situations ◎ can be explainend qualitatively and quantitatively using formulas based on Newton's laws of motion. The question is, what about equivalent principle ? Is there anyone who can ? is.

◎ Forces of the same magnitude are acting on a mass point from the left and right directions. Types of forces are tension, gravity, and inertial force. Since there are no combinations of inertial forces and ine

rtial forces, there are five combinations of forces (ignoring the difference between left and right).

◎ A body is slidingaq down inclined surface and (no friction).

Equivalence Principle (again)

Allow me to repeat the previous question,regarding two situations ◎ below. Two situations ◎ can be explainend qualitatively and quantitatively using formulas based on Newton's laws of motion. The question is, what about equivalent principle ? Is there anyone who can ? is.

◎ Forces of the same magnitude are acting on a mass point from the left and right directions. Types of forces are tension, gravity, and inertial force. Since there are no combinations of inertial forces and ine

rtial forces, there are five combinations of forces (ignoring the difference between left and right).

◎ A body is slidingaq down inclined surface and (no friction).

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127中山 2024/04/19 12:30

Equivalence principle (again)

On the ground, a passenger car is moving with uniform acceleration to the right. In the car, a body hanging from the ceiling with a string is swinging to the left. The angle can be explained qualitatively and quantitatively using equations based on Newton's laws of motion. What about equivalence principle ? Is there anyone who can ?

Equivalence principle (again)

On the ground, a passenger car is moving with uniform acceleration to the right. In the car, a body hanging from the ceiling with a string is swinging to the left. The angle can be explained qualitatively and quantitatively using equations based on Newton's laws of motion. What about equivalence principle ? Is there anyone who can ?

4pt

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126中山 2024/04/16 16:59

Accelerated Motion and Non-Accelerated Motion (again)

Difference between the two motions above will be the difference of motion with respect to aether frame. A mass point moving in accelerated motion is accompanied by inertial force, that corresponds qualitatively and quantitatively. A mass point moving in non-accelerated motion (uniform linear motion) is not accompanied by inertial force.

A saying are trying about inertial force and gravity. What can we say by comparing the two words ? Inertial force is inertial force, gravity is gravity and both are true forces ! That seems to be all that can be said. This is a short report.

Accelerated Motion and Non-Accelerated Motion (again)

Difference between the two motions above will be the difference of motion with respect to aether frame. A mass point moving in accelerated motion is accompanied by inertial force, that corresponds qualitatively and quantitatively. A mass point moving in non-accelerated motion (uniform linear motion) is not accompanied by inertial force.

A saying are trying about inertial force and gravity. What can we say by comparing the two words ? Inertial force is inertial force, gravity is gravity and both are true forces ! That seems to be all that can be said. This is a short report.

5pt

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125中山 2024/04/12 11:48

Time is Absolute (again)

◎ In relative motion

A spacecraft is moving horizontally in front of an observer. Plane waves of starlight (constant wavelength) is coming from directly above. Regardless of the speed of the spacecraft, coming waves are the same. Time is absolute, with no delay.

◎ In different gravity fields

There is a mirror high up in high tower. Light (constant wavelength) emitted from the ground is reflected by the mirror and returned to the ground. Frequency measured at these three points are the same (if these are not the same, number of waves on optical pathes will increase or decrease endlessly). Time is absolute, with no delay.

Time is Absolute (again)

◎ In relative motion

A spacecraft is moving horizontally in front of an observer. Plane waves of starlight (constant wavelength) is coming from directly above. Regardless of the speed of the spacecraft, coming waves are the same. Time is absolute, with no delay.

◎ In different gravity fields

There is a mirror high up in high tower. Light (constant wavelength) emitted from the ground is reflected by the mirror and returned to the ground. Frequency measured at these three points are the same (if these are not the same, number of waves on optical pathes will increase or decrease endlessly). Time is absolute, with no delay.

3pt

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124中山 2024/04/12 11:15

Local Inertial Frame (again)

An elevator cabin is in free fall. Imagine mass points placed regularly in the elevator. Vector of inertial force acting on each mass point is the same. Local inertial frame is impossible.

Two elevators are moving apart horizontally. One is in accelerated motion and the other is in non-accelerated motion. By an accelerometer, to tell which one is accelerating is possible. In the elevator with accelerated motion, there is no inertial frame, even locally.

Local Inertial Frame (again)

An elevator cabin is in free fall. Imagine mass points placed regularly in the elevator. Vector of inertial force acting on each mass point is the same. Local inertial frame is impossible.

Two elevators are moving apart horizontally. One is in accelerated motion and the other is in non-accelerated motion. By an accelerometer, to tell which one is accelerating is possible. In the elevator with accelerated motion, there is no inertial frame, even locally.

5pt

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123中山 2024/04/12 10:47

Accelerated Motion (again)

A passenger car is accelerating to the right (uniform acceleration). A light source (wavelength is onstant) at the rear wall of the car emits light, and on the front wall, frequency measuring device is settled. During acceleration, in the car, there will be more waves than before. In other words, accelerated motion is not fictitious (inertial force will not be fictitious also).

A ray of light is emitted from the ceiling of a passenger car directly below. When this car is accelerated, the light ray reaches the floor in a parabola. Difference between acceleration and non-acceleration is not fictitious.

Accelerated Motion (again)

A passenger car is accelerating to the right (uniform acceleration). A light source (wavelength is onstant) at the rear wall of the car emits light, and on the front wall, frequency measuring device is settled. During acceleration, in the car, there will be more waves than before. In other words, accelerated motion is not fictitious (inertial force will not be fictitious also).

A ray of light is emitted from the ceiling of a passenger car directly below. When this car is accelerated, the light ray reaches the floor in a parabola. Difference between acceleration and non-acceleration is not fictitious.

5pt

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122中山 2024/04/12 10:34

Accelerated Motion & Inertial Force (again)

Accelerated motion is absolute motion relative to aether frame. The two are two sides of the same coin. Gravity is irrelevant at all, and does not play a role in this problem.

Accelerated Motion & Inertial Force (again)

Accelerated motion is absolute motion relative to aether frame. The two are two sides of the same coin. Gravity is irrelevant at all, and does not play a role in this problem.

6pt

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120中山 2024/04/01 15:21

Measuring Aether (again)

In outer space, frequency and wavelength of incoming lights from two stars (from opposite directions on the celestial sphere) are measured. To the measurer, speed of two incoming lights will be different. And sum of speed of two lights will be 2c (or close to 2c). In post 115, it is forgotten to note. Sorry.

Measuring Aether (again)

In outer space, frequency and wavelength of incoming lights from two stars (from opposite directions on the celestial sphere) are measured. To the measurer, speed of two incoming lights will be different. And sum of speed of two lights will be 2c (or close to 2c). In post 115, it is forgotten to note. Sorry.

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