Selected Posts on Anti-Relativity - 物理の勉強掲示板

Selected Posts on Anti-Relativity

0nakayama 2023/02/18 09:14 3938view

Michelson-Morley Experiment

It (done in air) is nonsense. In air, light is propagated at c/n. So, the result of M-M experiment (done in air) is only natural.

In a book "Theory of Relativity" by Pauli, W 1958, it's written as follows (quoted from English version ; in 1-6). "Rather should one say that for an observer moving with medium, light is propagated as usual with velocity c/n in all directions".

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128中山 2024/04/20 10:19

Equivalence Principle (again)

Allow me to repeat the previous question,regarding two situations ◎ below. Two situations ◎ can be explainend qualitatively and quantitatively using formulas based on Newton's laws of motion. The question is, what about equivalent principle ? Is there anyone who can ? is.

◎ Forces of the same magnitude are acting on a mass point from the left and right directions. Types of forces are tension, gravity, and inertial force. Since there are no combinations of inertial forces and ine

rtial forces, there are five combinations of forces (ignoring the difference between left and right).

◎ A body is slidingaq down inclined surface and (no friction).

Equivalence Principle (again)

Allow me to repeat the previous question,regarding two situations ◎ below. Two situations ◎ can be explainend qualitatively and quantitatively using formulas based on Newton's laws of motion. The question is, what about equivalent principle ? Is there anyone who can ? is.

◎ Forces of the same magnitude are acting on a mass point from the left and right directions. Types of forces are tension, gravity, and inertial force. Since there are no combinations of inertial forces and ine

rtial forces, there are five combinations of forces (ignoring the difference between left and right).

◎ A body is slidingaq down inclined surface and (no friction).

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127中山 2024/04/19 12:30

Equivalence principle (again)

On the ground, a passenger car is moving with uniform acceleration to the right. In the car, a body hanging from the ceiling with a string is swinging to the left. The angle can be explained qualitatively and quantitatively using equations based on Newton's laws of motion. What about equivalence principle ? Is there anyone who can ?

Equivalence principle (again)

On the ground, a passenger car is moving with uniform acceleration to the right. In the car, a body hanging from the ceiling with a string is swinging to the left. The angle can be explained qualitatively and quantitatively using equations based on Newton's laws of motion. What about equivalence principle ? Is there anyone who can ?

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126中山 2024/04/16 16:59

Accelerated Motion and Non-Accelerated Motion (again)

Difference between the two motions above will be the difference of motion with respect to aether frame. A mass point moving in accelerated motion is accompanied by inertial force, that corresponds qualitatively and quantitatively. A mass point moving in non-accelerated motion (uniform linear motion) is not accompanied by inertial force.

A saying are trying about inertial force and gravity. What can we say by comparing the two words ? Inertial force is inertial force, gravity is gravity and both are true forces ! That seems to be all that can be said. This is a short report.

Accelerated Motion and Non-Accelerated Motion (again)

Difference between the two motions above will be the difference of motion with respect to aether frame. A mass point moving in accelerated motion is accompanied by inertial force, that corresponds qualitatively and quantitatively. A mass point moving in non-accelerated motion (uniform linear motion) is not accompanied by inertial force.

A saying are trying about inertial force and gravity. What can we say by comparing the two words ? Inertial force is inertial force, gravity is gravity and both are true forces ! That seems to be all that can be said. This is a short report.

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125中山 2024/04/12 11:48

Time is Absolute (again)

◎ In relative motion

A spacecraft is moving horizontally in front of an observer. Plane waves of starlight (constant wavelength) is coming from directly above. Regardless of the speed of the spacecraft, coming waves are the same. Time is absolute, with no delay.

◎ In different gravity fields

There is a mirror high up in high tower. Light (constant wavelength) emitted from the ground is reflected by the mirror and returned to the ground. Frequency measured at these three points are the same (if these are not the same, number of waves on optical pathes will increase or decrease endlessly). Time is absolute, with no delay.

Time is Absolute (again)

◎ In relative motion

A spacecraft is moving horizontally in front of an observer. Plane waves of starlight (constant wavelength) is coming from directly above. Regardless of the speed of the spacecraft, coming waves are the same. Time is absolute, with no delay.

◎ In different gravity fields

There is a mirror high up in high tower. Light (constant wavelength) emitted from the ground is reflected by the mirror and returned to the ground. Frequency measured at these three points are the same (if these are not the same, number of waves on optical pathes will increase or decrease endlessly). Time is absolute, with no delay.

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124中山 2024/04/12 11:15

Local Inertial Frame (again)

An elevator cabin is in free fall. Imagine mass points placed regularly in the elevator. Vector of inertial force acting on each mass point is the same. Local inertial frame is impossible.

Two elevators are moving apart horizontally. One is in accelerated motion and the other is in non-accelerated motion. By an accelerometer, to tell which one is accelerating is possible. In the elevator with accelerated motion, there is no inertial frame, even locally.

Local Inertial Frame (again)

An elevator cabin is in free fall. Imagine mass points placed regularly in the elevator. Vector of inertial force acting on each mass point is the same. Local inertial frame is impossible.

Two elevators are moving apart horizontally. One is in accelerated motion and the other is in non-accelerated motion. By an accelerometer, to tell which one is accelerating is possible. In the elevator with accelerated motion, there is no inertial frame, even locally.

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123中山 2024/04/12 10:47

Accelerated Motion (again)

A passenger car is accelerating to the right (uniform acceleration). A light source (wavelength is onstant) at the rear wall of the car emits light, and on the front wall, frequency measuring device is settled. During acceleration, in the car, there will be more waves than before. In other words, accelerated motion is not fictitious (inertial force will not be fictitious also).

A ray of light is emitted from the ceiling of a passenger car directly below. When this car is accelerated, the light ray reaches the floor in a parabola. Difference between acceleration and non-acceleration is not fictitious.

Accelerated Motion (again)

A passenger car is accelerating to the right (uniform acceleration). A light source (wavelength is onstant) at the rear wall of the car emits light, and on the front wall, frequency measuring device is settled. During acceleration, in the car, there will be more waves than before. In other words, accelerated motion is not fictitious (inertial force will not be fictitious also).

A ray of light is emitted from the ceiling of a passenger car directly below. When this car is accelerated, the light ray reaches the floor in a parabola. Difference between acceleration and non-acceleration is not fictitious.

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122中山 2024/04/12 10:34

Accelerated Motion & Inertial Force (again)

Accelerated motion is absolute motion relative to aether frame. The two are two sides of the same coin. Gravity is irrelevant at all, and does not play a role in this problem.

Accelerated Motion & Inertial Force (again)

Accelerated motion is absolute motion relative to aether frame. The two are two sides of the same coin. Gravity is irrelevant at all, and does not play a role in this problem.

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120中山 2024/04/01 15:21

Measuring Aether (again)

In outer space, frequency and wavelength of incoming lights from two stars (from opposite directions on the celestial sphere) are measured. To the measurer, speed of two incoming lights will be different. And sum of speed of two lights will be 2c (or close to 2c). In post 115, it is forgotten to note. Sorry.

Measuring Aether (again)

In outer space, frequency and wavelength of incoming lights from two stars (from opposite directions on the celestial sphere) are measured. To the measurer, speed of two incoming lights will be different. And sum of speed of two lights will be 2c (or close to 2c). In post 115, it is forgotten to note. Sorry.

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119中山 2024/03/28 15:17

Accelerated Motion & Inertial Force (again)

Accelerated motion and inertial force correspond qualitatively (in the direction of celestial sphere and of aether) quantitatively. This will lead to zero inertial force in non-accelerated motion. Also, let us assume that non-accelerating motion includes absolute rest.

Accelerated Motion & Inertial Force (again)

Accelerated motion and inertial force correspond qualitatively (in the direction of celestial sphere and of aether) quantitatively. This will lead to zero inertial force in non-accelerated motion. Also, let us assume that non-accelerating motion includes absolute rest.

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118中山 2024/03/25 17:42

Centrifugal force (again)

Tension is centrifugal force, an effect of Newton’s third law of motion, and centripetal force is a reaction. The two are true forces. Rotational motion can be thought through to accelerated motion and non-accelerated motion (including absolute rest). Frame will be the celestial sphere and the aether.

Centrifugal force (again)

Tension is centrifugal force, an effect of Newton’s third law of motion, and centripetal force is a reaction. The two are true forces. Rotational motion can be thought through to accelerated motion and non-accelerated motion (including absolute rest). Frame will be the celestial sphere and the aether.

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117中山 2024/03/24 17:06

Centrifugal Force (again)

Formula for centrifugal force is F = m v^2/r. And as Newton's third law of motion shows, centrifugal force is an action, centripetal force is a reaction, and the magnitude of the two forces is the same. Both are true forces, not fictitious forces.

In the shape of the cross, rods of length 4r and 2r are rotating horizontally. Assume that there are mass points m at each of four edges of the rod, and that the mass of rods is zero. Tension (centrifugal force) acting on the rods is true force.

Centrifugal Force (again)

Formula for centrifugal force is F = m v^2/r. And as Newton's third law of motion shows, centrifugal force is an action, centripetal force is a reaction, and the magnitude of the two forces is the same. Both are true forces, not fictitious forces.

In the shape of the cross, rods of length 4r and 2r are rotating horizontally. Assume that there are mass points m at each of four edges of the rod, and that the mass of rods is zero. Tension (centrifugal force) acting on the rods is true force.

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115中山 2024/03/06 09:34

Measuring Aether (again)

In outer space, frequency and wavelength of incoming lights from two stars (from opposite directions on the celestial sphere) are measured. To the measurer, speed of two incoming lights will be different. And it will mean the motion (in the direction of light path) of the measurer with respect to aether.

Note) If the measurer moves in the direction of light path, frequency and speed of two incoming lights will vary. Because, wavelength of two incoming light does not vary.

Measuring Aether (again)

In outer space, frequency and wavelength of incoming lights from two stars (from opposite directions on the celestial sphere) are measured. To the measurer, speed of two incoming lights will be different. And it will mean the motion (in the direction of light path) of the measurer with respect to aether.

Note) If the measurer moves in the direction of light path, frequency and speed of two incoming lights will vary. Because, wavelength of two incoming light does not vary.

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114中山 2024/03/02 08:51

Propagation of Light in Two Ways (again

Annual aberration and daily aberration mean motion of Earth (with respect to aether). On the other hand, if the distance to the light source is moderate (no, even the distance to the Moon also !), propagation of light will follow emission theory. Relativity will fade away, and both aether and emission theory will revive. Someday as phoenixes.

Propagation of Light in Two Ways (again

Annual aberration and daily aberration mean motion of Earth (with respect to aether). On the other hand, if the distance to the light source is moderate (no, even the distance to the Moon also !), propagation of light will follow emission theory. Relativity will fade away, and both aether and emission theory will revive. Someday as phoenixes.

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113中山 2024/02/28 12:34

Propagation of Light in Two Ways (guess)

In space, spaceship is floating (not accelerating). From this spacecraft, multiple probes begin a uniform linear motion towards assigned star on celestial sphere. A light source set on the probes that shines at a certain frequency is visible from the spacecraft.

Is the assumption that propagation of light in two ways (written before) correct ? If correct, frequency of probe's light (reaches the spacecraft) that emitted from before and after a few light-seconds distance will be different (although in rare cases it may not be different). The two, emission theory and aether will revive as phoenixes.

Propagation of Light in Two Ways (guess)

In space, spaceship is floating (not accelerating). From this spacecraft, multiple probes begin a uniform linear motion towards assigned star on celestial sphere. A light source set on the probes that shines at a certain frequency is visible from the spacecraft.

Is the assumption that propagation of light in two ways (written before) correct ? If correct, frequency of probe's light (reaches the spacecraft) that emitted from before and after a few light-seconds distance will be different (although in rare cases it may not be different). The two, emission theory and aether will revive as phoenixes.

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112中山 2024/02/26 13:43

Emission Theory (guess)

For a few seconds after emission, propagation of light will follow emission theory, and then follows the aether reference frame (as written before). In other words, from the aether reference frame, speed of light will vary, and energy of a photon will also vary. It is said that energy of light is proportional to its frequency.

Note) The above will be possible to explain accuracy of measuring the distance to Moon (by laser) and aberration without contradiction.

Emission Theory (guess)

For a few seconds after emission, propagation of light will follow emission theory, and then follows the aether reference frame (as written before). In other words, from the aether reference frame, speed of light will vary, and energy of a photon will also vary. It is said that energy of light is proportional to its frequency.

Note) The above will be possible to explain accuracy of measuring the distance to Moon (by laser) and aberration without contradiction.

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111中山 2024/02/21 11:29

Aberration (again)

Space is filled with aether. For light, aether acts as a medium (as a reference frame). In other words, light propagates at the same speed through aether. Regardless of the direction of propagation. Earth is moving at different speeds with respect relative to aether. Therefore, speed of light with respect to Earth is different.

Aberration (again)

Space is filled with aether. For light, aether acts as a medium (as a reference frame). In other words, light propagates at the same speed through aether. Regardless of the direction of propagation. Earth is moving at different speeds with respect relative to aether. Therefore, speed of light with respect to Earth is different.

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110中山 2024/02/20 15:30

Aberration (again)

Space is filled with aetheric reference frame (uniform isotropic : absolute rest frame). This will be only one hypothesis that can explain various types of aberration.

Aberration is a phenomenon completed in upper atmosphere. It is the same as refraction. Result of Airy's experiment (tube of telescope is filled with water) is only natural.

Due to aberration, it is said that visible position (direction) of celestial bodies shift beyond the direction of motion of Earth. No, shift will be behind the direction of motion of Earth. This will be clear by illustration of light rays in atmosphere.

Draw trajectory of position of a celestial body (on celestial sphere. returns to source every year). Ellipse of annual aberration will be warped by secular aberration. Daily aberration will be many small circles (365 pearls).

Aberration (again)

Space is filled with aetheric reference frame (uniform isotropic : absolute rest frame). This will be only one hypothesis that can explain various types of aberration.

Aberration is a phenomenon completed in upper atmosphere. It is the same as refraction. Result of Airy's experiment (tube of telescope is filled with water) is only natural.

Due to aberration, it is said that visible position (direction) of celestial bodies shift beyond the direction of motion of Earth. No, shift will be behind the direction of motion of Earth. This will be clear by illustration of light rays in atmosphere.

Draw trajectory of position of a celestial body (on celestial sphere. returns to source every year). Ellipse of annual aberration will be warped by secular aberration. Daily aberration will be many small circles (365 pearls).

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109中山 2024/02/19 13:57

Is speed of light constant ? (again)

As posted preciously (one of which is on 2023-2-18), constancy of speed of light is impossible. Therefore, time dilation and Lorentz contraction are also impossible. Without a doubt.

Is speed of light constant ? (again)

As posted preciously (one of which is on 2023-2-18), constancy of speed of light is impossible. Therefore, time dilation and Lorentz contraction are also impossible. Without a doubt.

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108中山 2024/02/12 15:17

Propagation of Light (again)

Light propagates in two ways.

1) A reflector placed on moon's surface is irradiated with laser light, and by reflected light, distance to Moon is measured. Error is a few centimeters. Laser light emitted from light source will follow emission theory for at least one second. This guess can be scored 90 points out of 100 points.

2) Various types of aberration. Light will follow aether reference frame after passing through the region 1. This guess can be scored 120 points out of 100 points.

Note) In air,light propagates following to air reference frame. So, MM experiments done in air is nonsense.

Propagation of Light (again)

Light propagates in two ways.

1) A reflector placed on moon's surface is irradiated with laser light, and by reflected light, distance to Moon is measured. Error is a few centimeters. Laser light emitted from light source will follow emission theory for at least one second. This guess can be scored 90 points out of 100 points.

2) Various types of aberration. Light will follow aether reference frame after passing through the region 1. This guess can be scored 120 points out of 100 points.

Note) In air,light propagates following to air reference frame. So, MM experiments done in air is nonsense.

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107中山 2024/02/11 09:01

Sound Waves, Light Waves and an Observers (summary)

Sound waves propagate through air, and light waves propagate through aether. Medium is uniformly iosotropic, and speed of waves with respect to medium is constant. So, when a point-like wave source is stationary in medium, waves drawn on a plane are concentric circles. Therefore, if observer is moving with respect to medium, speed of sound waves and light waves for observer is not constant.

Note: Light waves using air as a medium propagate in the same way as sound waves.

Sound Waves, Light Waves and an Observers (summary)

Sound waves propagate through air, and light waves propagate through aether. Medium is uniformly iosotropic, and speed of waves with respect to medium is constant. So, when a point-like wave source is stationary in medium, waves drawn on a plane are concentric circles. Therefore, if observer is moving with respect to medium, speed of sound waves and light waves for observer is not constant.

Note: Light waves using air as a medium propagate in the same way as sound waves.

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106中山 2024/02/09 10:20

Culculating Equation of Doppler Effect

Speed of sound waves is constant only with respect to air, which is medium of propagation. Speed of light waves will probably be constant only with respect to aether, which is medium of propagation.

Therefore, calculating equation for frequency of light waves observed by an observer must be the same as culculating equation for frequency of sound waves observed by an observer.

Culculating Equation of Doppler Effect

Speed of sound waves is constant only with respect to air, which is medium of propagation. Speed of light waves will probably be constant only with respect to aether, which is medium of propagation.

Therefore, calculating equation for frequency of light waves observed by an observer must be the same as culculating equation for frequency of sound waves observed by an observer.

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105中山 2024/02/06 10:48

Doppler Effect and Variable Speed of Light

For Doppler effect of sound waves, following will hold. Speed of sound waves in air, which is medium for sound waves propagation, is constant. In other words, speed of sound waves is constant only with respect to air.

Doppler effect of light waves will be the same as that of sound waves. Medium of light waves is aether, which is uniformly isotropic. In other words, speed of light waves is constant only with respect to aether.

Doppler Effect and Variable Speed of Light

For Doppler effect of sound waves, following will hold. Speed of sound waves in air, which is medium for sound waves propagation, is constant. In other words, speed of sound waves is constant only with respect to air.

Doppler effect of light waves will be the same as that of sound waves. Medium of light waves is aether, which is uniformly isotropic. In other words, speed of light waves is constant only with respect to aether.

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104中山 2024/02/01 15:45

Speed of sound is variable, and also, speed of light will be variable.

Equation v = λ f holds between sound source and the observer. v is speed of sound to the observer, λ is wavelength, and f is frequency to the observer. The observer is in motion, which causes the frequency in varying. In above equation, what is varying is v (λ is not varying).

Equation v = λ f will also hold between light source and the observer. It will be v that is varying.

Speed of sound is variable, and also, speed of light will be variable.

Equation v = λ f holds between sound source and the observer. v is speed of sound to the observer, λ is wavelength, and f is frequency to the observer. The observer is in motion, which causes the frequency in varying. In above equation, what is varying is v (λ is not varying).

Equation v = λ f will also hold between light source and the observer. It will be v that is varying.

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103中山 2024/01/26 18:28

Kinetic Energy: Momentum: Force: Impulse (supplement)

Rotational momentum seems to be no matter. In the rotational motion of a body (imagine a disk), there is a state of speed zero. And on both sides of the disk, there are plus and minus rotational motions. We see plus and minus rotational motions qualitatively and quantitatively.

But what about linear momentum ? Even in the linear motion of a body, there will be a state of speed zero. And on both sides of the body, there will be plus and minus linear motions. We cannot see it qualitatively and quantitatively. But probably, is it tha same to rotational motions ?

Kinetic Energy: Momentum: Force: Impulse (supplement)

Rotational momentum seems to be no matter. In the rotational motion of a body (imagine a disk), there is a state of speed zero. And on both sides of the disk, there are plus and minus rotational motions. We see plus and minus rotational motions qualitatively and quantitatively.

But what about linear momentum ? Even in the linear motion of a body, there will be a state of speed zero. And on both sides of the body, there will be plus and minus linear motions. We cannot see it qualitatively and quantitatively. But probably, is it tha same to rotational motions ?

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102中山 2024/01/24 09:40

Kinetic energy: momentum: force: impulse (supplement)

Momentum is physical quantity that we can vary in laboratory. And the rotational momentum can be zero (no matter who sees it). The same will go for linear momentum. The two momentums will be adjoining. But we don't understand that, and we don't try.

Kinetic energy: momentum: force: impulse (supplement)

Momentum is physical quantity that we can vary in laboratory. And the rotational momentum can be zero (no matter who sees it). The same will go for linear momentum. The two momentums will be adjoining. But we don't understand that, and we don't try.

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101中山 2024/01/22 20:09

Kinetic Energy: Momentum: Force: Impulse (inference)

A homogeneous disk with mass M, diameter 2a, and uniform thickness is stationary (not rotating) with respect to the celestial sphere. Angular momentum of this disk is zero. It is zero for any observer in any motion.

There is a type of momentum called linear momentum, which is limited to motion in a straight line. A body of

mass M is moving in a straight line. By analogy with rotational motion, there may be situations where linear momentum is zero even on a straight line (stationary on a straight line). All movements of a mass point can be understood as movements relative to aether (absolute rest).

Kinetic Energy: Momentum: Force: Impulse (inference)

A homogeneous disk with mass M, diameter 2a, and uniform thickness is stationary (not rotating) with respect to the celestial sphere. Angular momentum of this disk is zero. It is zero for any observer in any motion.

There is a type of momentum called linear momentum, which is limited to motion in a straight line. A body of

mass M is moving in a straight line. By analogy with rotational motion, there may be situations where linear momentum is zero even on a straight line (stationary on a straight line). All movements of a mass point can be understood as movements relative to aether (absolute rest).

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100中山 2024/01/04 16:16

Motion of a Mass Point & Aether

Every mass point is either in motion or not. Motion is said to be relative, but this is only appearance. For mass points in motion, there are motions in which vector of motion (magnitude and direction) vary and motions in which there is no varying. In motion varying, inertial force that varies (qualitatively or quantitatively) is recognized. In motion without varying, inertial force is not recognized.

The above will be depending on existence of a uniform isotropic aether in space.

Motion of a Mass Point & Aether

Every mass point is either in motion or not. Motion is said to be relative, but this is only appearance. For mass points in motion, there are motions in which vector of motion (magnitude and direction) vary and motions in which there is no varying. In motion varying, inertial force that varies (qualitatively or quantitatively) is recognized. In motion without varying, inertial force is not recognized.

The above will be depending on existence of a uniform isotropic aether in space.

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99中山 2023/12/14 15:46

Bending of Light

Moon occults (covers up) star A on the celestial sphere. In this occultation, there is a moment when star A, center of Moon, and an observer make a straight line. An artificial disk the same apparent diameter (as Moon) follows Moon at the same apparent speed (as Moon). And it occults star A in the same way (as Moon). If occultation time is the same, there will be no bending of light due to gravity.

Bending of Light

Moon occults (covers up) star A on the celestial sphere. In this occultation, there is a moment when star A, center of Moon, and an observer make a straight line. An artificial disk the same apparent diameter (as Moon) follows Moon at the same apparent speed (as Moon). And it occults star A in the same way (as Moon). If occultation time is the same, there will be no bending of light due to gravity.

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